We enjoy caves and tour them whenever possible. We have a good understanding of stalactites (hang tight from the ceiling) and stalagmites (grow from the ground), columns, drapery, flowstone and bacon. We know about bat guano and white nose syndrome. We’re into caves!
There are two show caves in southern Arizona with very different stories. Colossal cave is large with thirty nine miles of natural tunnels. It took two years to map the two miles of complex passages that are fully explored.
The cave was “discovered” in 1879, but artifacts indicate that it was long ago used by prehistoric peoples. The cave’s colorful history began in 1887 when it was a hideout for bank robbers and then bandits in the 1920s.
An early owner of the cave also owned a local hotel. For decades hotel guests were invited to visit the cave and break off stalactites as souvenirs. Sigh….
We were sad to see the damage done to Colossal Cave. Nearly every stalactite was broken off. The cave has been dry for many years so there is no new growth.
The tour guide pointed out that a positive aspect of the destruction is that we can see the age rings of the stalactites, and know the damage that can happen when a fragile cave environment is subject to human interference.
Thankfully, a more responsible owner, Frank Schmidt, began protection efforts for Colossal Cave in the 1920s. He led tours for many years.
Four hundred members of the Civilian Conservation Corps worked in Colossal Cave from 1934 – 1938. They installed the hand rails and footpaths that are still in use today to guide visitors safely through the cave. The sadness we felt at the damage to Colossal Cave formations was offset by the impressive work of the CCC.
Our tour guide said the CCC also installed new cave formations “stalag-lights” to enhance a visitor’s trip through the cave.
The second cave open to visitors in southern Arizona has a completely different story. The cave that would become Kartchner Caverns was discovered by two University of Arizona students in 1974, Gary Tenen and Randy Tufts. They were amateur cavers intrigued by the geology of the area. They found a sinkhole with a grapefruit size hole that was “breathing”. They dug the hole a little bigger and squeezed their way in, traveling about 400 feet.
For four years they explored the cave believing they were on BLM land. They desperately wanted to protect the cave from damage so kept its existence secret.
Learning they were actually on private land, they approached the owners with a slideshow of pictures taken in this cave and pictures from other caves that were not protected. Landowners James and Lois Kartchner, he a former science teacher and school superintendent, shared the vision of protecting the cave.
It took 10 more years of secrecy, only informing need to know Arizona legislators, for the state to purchase the land which would become Kartchner Caverns State Park.
Once the purchase became common knowledge, guards were hired to protect the cave. The state supported almost four years of scientific study to learn everything possible about the cave’s ecosystem.
There was no evidence of human visitation and very little evidence of animal trespass. Eighty thousand year old bones from a single Shasta ground sloth were found and identified. A full adult coyote skeleton from more recent times was also found.
The cave appeared to have been a closed environment for hundreds of thousands of years. The caverns were (and continue to be) “wet” with pristine, growing formations.
The challenge for the park system was (and is) to maintain the ecosystem but still allow visitation. A trail system was developed over several years using strategies to minimize impact to the cave itself.
Electric powered hand tools were used to make cave trails. No gas powered machinery was ever used. One of the two caverns was (and still is) closed six months each year to accommodate the seasonal bat population.
There are strict protocols for visiting the cave – age restrictions, no cameras, no backpacks, no food or water – all designed to protect the cave ecosystem. (The pictures of Kartchner cave formations in this blog are all from the internet.)
A visitor walks through a series of four air-tight doors and a mister to enter (and exit) the cave so as not to disrupt natural pressures, temperatures and humidity levels. These are constantly monitored and tours may be reduced in size or eliminated to maintain the cave’s equilibrium. We were told it is one of the most protected “show caves” in the world.
After seeing what can happen if a cave is not protected, we were very impressed with the work and commitment the Arizona State Park system extends to Kartchner Caverns. Every cave we see in the future will be compared to these caverns for their beauty and protection.